There is a misconception that bleeding gums are normal. This statement is totally incorrect. If you have bleeding gums, it means that there is bacterial action that causes inflammation of the gums and can, in the most advanced cases, end by causing tooth loss.
Treatable periodontal diseases are:
- Periodontitis (pyorrhoea)
This is very common and is produced by bacteria in the mouth, which we can pass on to each other, and also through genetic susceptibility to the disease. When this bacteria is not removed properly, it affects the gums, causing inflammation that moves under the gum, destroying the bone and tissues that support the teeth and worsening their prognosis.
In the presence of bleeding and inflammation, the presence or absence of periodontal disease must be verified. Once diagnosed, the basic phase of periodontal treatment should be undertaken: this consists of scraping and root planing. This is a non-surgical technique in which bacterial colonies are removed through deep prophylaxis to eliminate bleeding and swelling and stabilise bone loss.
A gum graft is indicated in cases where the tooth root is left exposed due to a receding gum or gums. This involves surgery under local anaesthetic, using microsurgical techniques. In most cases, gingiva must be taken from the palate and grafted on to the area intended to cover the root. This is a surgery with very little trauma, excellent post-operative period and practically non-existent discomfort. There are also artificial gum substitutes with satisfactory and predictable results.
In more advanced cases with more bone loss we must work with the gum, getting underneath it, and thus decontaminating tooth roots where there are deposits in the form of hardened stones: oral bacterial flora.
Where necessary we can apply periodontal regeneration techniques to recover some of the lost bone. Currently, biomaterials are used which are protein derivatives that enable our teeth to regenerate bone with satisfactory results when the anatomical conditions of the patient are favourable.